La Cage aux Folles, One-Upped

51WFQ930PQLCaryl Churchill’s 1976 play, Cloud 9, shows her “continuing obsession with questions of identity of identity – a theme that unifies much of her work…” (Klein).  The published front cover of Cloud 9 alludes to the ambiguity of identity through its artwork.  The characters within the play are constantly challenging gender stereotypical roles.  Churchill alludes to this notion with the picture of a colonial’s head, a woman’s naked body, and someone’s sneakered feet where the gender is left uncertain.  Before a reader opens the play they must first look at the front cover.  Similarly, if audience members go to watch the play performed live, they will encounter a poster or image on the front of a cast pamphlet.  With these images, they are made aware that this is an unusual production.  The bizarre aspect of cross casting is something that Churchill intentionally chose for her play.  Take a look at the character list that I have added below and see if you can find any peculiarities.




Clive, a colonial administrator

Betty, his wife, played by a man

Joshua, his black servant, played by a white

Edward, his son, played by a woman

Maud, his mother-in-law

Ellen, Edward’s governess

Mrs Saunders, a widow

Harry Bagley, an explorer


Betty, played by a woman

Edward, her son, played by a man

Victoria, her daughter

Martin, Victoria’s husband

Lin, a lesbian single mother

Cathy, Lin’s daughter, aged 4 and 5, played by a man

Gerry, Edward’s lover

Churchill has female characters being played by men as well as male characters being played by women.  Are you confused yet?  Take a moment to watch this video as a way of helping you to wrap your mind around the obscure nature of this play.

Churchill uses this play as a way to create fluctuating identities within theater.  The parotic cultural structures and iconic figures of the characters are used in a way to help reconstruct gender stereotypes (Humphries Lecture 8).  “…what Churchill is after in Cloud 9 is not creating convincing illusions, but rather destabilizing our notions of gender, sexual, and racial identity. One of her most audacious conceits is having the character of a black man, a two-faced Victorian-era servant who is alternately complaisant and hostile, played by a white man. Also in Act I, the wife, Betty, chafing at her constructed femininity, is portrayed by a man; the role of her son, Edward, who wrestles with his lack of conventional manliness, is assumed by a woman; and her daughter, Victoria, is represented by a doll. The casting makes a political point: that gender (as well as race and class) is, in fact, a performance” (Klein).  Because the characters are played by opposite genders, their homosexual relationships, while still homosexual, are seen in a heterosexual manner.  This is because a sexual act is being performed by a male and a female even though the male is being played by a female character or vice versa.  With this very confusing casting, “Cloud Nine makes acceptance of gay male and lesbian desire easy because it represents these forms of desire in terms that reinforce heterosexuality” (Harding).   It appears that Churchill’s intent with this play is to impose resistance against the social norms of society.


The literal gender confusion found in Could 9 is embodied by the characters’ search for their identity.   The theme of homosexuality is presented through the characters and their relationships.  In a play that is pastiche, “a hodgepodge of pieces put into one place,” the context of the characters’ relationships is explored through the perception of gender and sexuality. (Humphreys Lecture 8).  I will use the character of Edward, who is played by a woman, as an example of someone struggling to find their true identity.  In the first act of the play, Edward is subject to his father’s cruel nature and has to hide his homosexual tendencies.  Edward enjoys playing with his sister’s doll yet he gets chastised for even holding it for her, let alone playing with it.  Everyone tries to hide the fact that Edward likes dolls from his father in order to keep him out of trouble.

BETTY: Well I should give it to Ellen quickly. You don’t want papa to see you with a doll (Churchill 8).

In the second act of the play, Edward is now played by a male.  He is in a homosexual relationship with a man named Gerry, who like his father, does not want to accept him for who he is.

GERRY: Just be yourself.

EDWARD: I don’t know what you mean. Everyone’s always tried to stop me being feminine and now you are too (Churchill 70).

Gerry does not want Edward to play the role of the wife, which is what Edward is content in doing.  Judith Butler comments on the emotional perceptions of gender and sexuality within her article Gender is Burning. “In the reprimand the subject not only receives recognition, but attains as well a certain order of social existence in being transferred from an outer region of indifferent, questionable, or impossible being to the discursive or social domain of the subject” (Butler 1).   Edward exists in the social order, but he is seen as out of the ordinary, even within his homosexual relationship with Gerry.  While struggling with his feminine features, Edward confides in Victoria that he is sick of men and believes that he is a lesbian.

Edward: No listen Vicky. I’d rather be a woman. I wish I had breasts like that, I think they’re beautiful. Can I touch them? (Churchill 72).

The character of Edward is a prime example of the struggles one must go through while searching for their identity.  Churchill’s play pushes the envelope on deconstructing gendered norms in society.  Her ability to create a work that entices the audience with humor, while bringing forth the serious matter of the search for identity, is a performance unto itself.

The iconic single by Blur, Boys and Girls captures the sentiment of this identity struggle most appropriately.


Girls who are boys
Who like boys to be girls
Who do boys like they’re girls
Who do girls like they’re boys
Always should be someone you really love

Categories: Uncategorized | 4 Comments

Post navigation

4 thoughts on “La Cage aux Folles, One-Upped

  1. Reblogged this on What's My Role? and commented:
    Talia took a very challenging play from our course this year and created an amazing analysis of it. Cloud Nine was a work I was scared to blog about as I did not know where to begin, however I knew that gender role reversals and the performance of gender was an important aspect of this play. By casting males as females and females as males, Churchill uses visuals to show how different people gender themselves. This post connects with my post Just a Bit of Fun in that just because someone looks like a man or women does not mean that that is how they view themselves.

  2. Reblogged this on Life's A Stage and commented:
    Here is a great example of a work that reflects the struggle with gender identity we all face. My classmate does a great job in pointing out how gender can resist social norms and expectations.

  3. Great stuff and good insight into the play. You really cut through a lot of the complexities, when it comes to character identity and gender identification, and presented in a well-written and accessible format. Your ideas on Churchill’s intentions, when it comes to buffering social norms with the openness of homosexuality in the play rings true.

  4. Pingback: La Cage aux Folles, One-Upped | The Orange Ukulele

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Blog at

citizen wemistokoshiw

A settler looking to be unsettled


An examination of Indigenous music

Reclaiming Native Identity

A Journey Toward Healing


Video Games and Aboriginal Culture

Simulated Indigenous Tourism

A look at the trivialization of Indigenous Tourism

A topnotch site

Wild Things?

The role of animals in Indigenous Fiction

Creation Stories

Creative writing as an element of culturally relevant learning for Aboriginal girls and women

Indigenous Knowledge Blog

Empowering Indigenous Knowledge

It's all kids stuff.

Challenging Binary Thinking and the Concept of Childhood

Sex Sells

The Working Woman

A Journey of Resistance

A Look into the lives of Aboriginal Women; Surviving and Thriving!

The Pressure of Performing

Gender Performativity in Life & Literature

The Phoenix

New woman arising from the ashes of the Old

Tracing the (Feminine) Candid Camera

"If we wish to trace the history of ideas, iconography becomes a candid camera trained upon the scholar's mind" - Stephen Jay Gould

Necessary Resistance

Closer Looks at Gender Interpellation

Dude Looks Like a Lady

How Media Portrays Cross-dressing Through the Ages

What doesn't Belong?

The categorization of women

Masculine Performance

Masculinity and how it is upheld in today's society.

Jamie's Blog

Gender Roles and Sexuality in Literature and the Media...

Sew In Season

Fashion: Victorian vs. Today

Life's A Stage

How Gender Performs In Our Lives


America's Response to the Call to Action in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath

Thoughts and Words

Thinking, reading, and writing about English literature


All play and no work

Women as Chattel

Slavery: Progression or Digression?

The Orange Ukulele

Nothing rhymes with orange.

Black vs. White, Female vs. Female

A blog about racial and gender inequality and economic disparity in terms of domestic servants.

Passing in Today's Society

Between the past and the present, we are all just passing

Wonder Woman's Broke!

Gender < = Economic Disparity In America

Screams Across the Continent

The Fall of Jeffersonian Philosphy in "The Grapes of Wrath" versus the Fall of Jacksonian philosphy in the Modern Day


Exploring the Evolution of the Hero

A consent of lies.

Ashley Greer

Citizens of Gotham

Frank Miller's attack against stereotypes, controversies and more within Batman: The Dark Knight Returns "Gotham, take control... take control of your city. Behold, the instrument of your liberation!" - Bane

The Expendable Citizen

research, teaching, and a little angst

%d bloggers like this: